What is an LED?
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits light when an electric current is passed through it.

Advantages of LED lighting:
The LED lamps don't have tungsten filament, gases or other elements that wear out. Due to this fact, their potential life is much longer than the other light sources ones.
The characteristics of the LED lamps, make these the most efficient light source. Currently there are many types of LED lamps  able to provide more than 120 lumens per watt, therefore, they have a higher performance than the most efficient fluorescent or discharge lamps. With the use of suitable optics, the LED lamps can direct the light towards the area to be illuminated, thus avoiding efficiency losses due to scattered light flow.
Their tiny size allows the manufacture of very small luminaires favoring non-intrusive lighting in places that require it.

Lumen (lm): Unit to measure the luminous flux emitted by a light source per second. It measures the total amount of light energy emitted by a lamp. It doesn't specify in which direction the light radiates.

Watts (W): Total power of the lamp.

Lux (lx): Unit that indicates the number of lumens / m2. It measures the lighting level of a surface (Illuminance).

Luminous efficiency in lumens per watt (lm / W): The nominal efficiency of the lamp is equal to its output flow divided by its total power.


Candela (Cd): Unit that measures the luminous intensity. We define the luminous intensity as the luminous flux radiated by a light source in a specific direction.


Chromatic Reproduction Index (CRI): This is a system that measures the ability of a light source to reproduce colors. Taking into account that sunlight offers a 100% real reproduction, when the value of the CRI approaches the number 100, the light source offers a lower distortion of the colors.
We can affirm that a reproduction between 70-80% is good and when it's over 90%, it's excellent.


Color temperature (K): The color temperature is a value that indicates the dominant tone of a light source perceived as white. The color temperature is expressed in Kelvin. The greater its number, the colder it is considered, because it comes near the human eye ultraviolet light perception. The lower values ​​correspond to the infrared light.

There is 3 standard types:
Warm Tc <3500ºK
Neutral 3500 <Tc> 5000
Cold Tc> 5000

LED life time: we can define two types of life:
* The average Rated Life (ARL) is how long it takes for half the lamps in a test batch to fail.
* Average Useful Life is the operating time after which 50% of a quantity of LED lamps still operative and belonging to the same batch have a degradation of their luminous flux that reaches 30% of their initial luminous flux. At this time, replacement of the lamp is recommended.


Photometric curve of the lamp: The photometric curve, also called the polar diagram, describes the distribution of the light intensity that gives values ​​in candelas (cd).
Ambient operating temperature related to the performance of the lamp: The lamp performance is expressed on base of the ambient temperature, measured outside the lamp. By default, the ambient temperature is equal to 25ºC.
Degree of protection IP: This value classifies the level of protection offered by a lamp against  intrusions of solid particules and liquid ingress. The first number indicates  the protection against the intrusion of solid particules and the second against liquid intrusion.

Resultado de imagen de ip degree of protection

UGR: Unified Glare Rating acronym. It is an index to evaluate the glare produced by the different sources of light. This index may vary depending on the geometry of the location and the location of the luminaire.

UGR                                       Activities / Space
16                             Technical drawing, watchmaking
19                                Typing, CAD, Meeting rooms
22                                          Receptions, hall, stores
25                                        Passages areas, archives




                Class-I, device constructed according to the electrical earthing specifications

              It's a certification mark that indicates conformity with health, safety and environmental protection standards for products sold in the E.U.

           Class-II, a double insulated electrical appliance that doesn't require a connection to electrical earth

                   Waste Management Tax included in the price

              Class-III,   Safety Extra Low Voltage luminaire (SELV. 50V Max.)

              Embedment dimensions




IK  CODE: Protection against mechanical impacts
Resultado de imagen de ik protection
IP  XY (Degree of protection IP): This value classifies the level of protection offered by a lamp against  intrusions of solid particules and liquid ingress. The first number indicates  the protection against the intrusion of solid particules and the second against liquid intrusion.



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What is an LED?

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LED lighting